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应用型研究生英语系列教材

A Practical English Course for Postgraduate Students

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Table of Contents

2

Unit Four

Reading Speaking

Translation

Writing

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Reading — Passage A

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1. The Apprentice The Apprentice is an American reality television show hosted by Donald Trump, created by Mark Burnett and broadcast on NBC. Billed as “The Ultimate Job Interview”, the show stars sixteen to eighteen businesspeople competing in an eliminationstyle competition for a one-year, $250,000 starting contract of running one of business magnate Trump’s companies. 《飞黄腾达》(The Apprentice),又译作《谁是接班人》,是美国 一个实况电视节目,于 2004 年初在 NBC 频道播放。

该节目是由 Mark Burnett Productions及Trump Productions LLC共同制作。

电视制作 人马克· 伯奈特(Mark Burnett)与纽约地产大亨当奴· 杜林普(Donald Trump,又译唐纳德· 特朗普)担任这个节目的监制。

杜林普同时兼任该 节目的主持人。

《飞黄腾达》旨在为杜林普挑选一位合适的选手作为他 的“接班人”。

从这个“终极面试”胜出的选手可以得到杜林普公司一 份年薪25万美元、为期一年的工作合同。

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Reading — Passage A

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2. NBC The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American television network headquartered in the GE (General Electric) Building in New York City’s Rockefeller Center. It is sometimes referred to as the Peacock Network due to its stylized peacock logo. NBC is available in an estimated 112 million households, or 98.6% of the country. NBC has 10 owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates in the United States.

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Reading — Passage A

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3. Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American business magnate, socialite, television personality, and author. He is the Chairman and CEO of the Trump Organization, a US-based real-estate developer. Trump is also the founder of Trump Entertainment Resorts, which operates numerous casinos and hotels across the world. Trump’s extravagant lifestyle and outspoken manner have made him a celebrity for years, a status which was only amplified by the success of his NBC reality show, The Apprentice (of which he served, as host and executive producer).

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Reading — Passage A

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Fill in the numbered gaps in the passage with proper headings listed below. A. Dress for success. B. Don’t say bad things about your boss or employees/co-workers. C. Ask for the job. D. Employer comes first. ANSWER E. No two interviews are alike in questions asked. F. Don’t rely on generalities. 1. F 2. B 3. I 4. A 5. G G. Rein in emotions. 6. D 7. H 8. J 9. E 10. C H. More than one. 11. K I. Likability counts. J. Limit what you say and never interrupt. K. Take responsibilities for your decisions.

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Reading — Passage A

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1. central planning Central planning refers to a planned economy or directed economy. It is an economic system in which the state or workers’ councils manage the economy and the central government makes all decisions on the production and consumption of goods and services. Its most extensive form is referred to as a command economy, centrally planned economy, or command and control economy. In such economies, central economic planning by the state or government is so extensive that it controls all major sectors of the economy and formulates all decisions about their use and about the distribution of income. The planners decide what should be produced and direct enterprises to produce those goods. (To be continued)

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Reading — Passage A

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Planned economies are in contrast to unplanned economies, such as a market economy, where production, distribution, pricing, and investment decisions are made by the private owners of the factors of production ( 生 产 要素 ) based upon their own interests rather than upon furthering some overarching macroeconomic plan. A planned economy may consist of stateowned enterprises, private enterprises directed by the state, or a combination of both. 2. Gosplan Gosplan or State Planning Committee was the committee responsible for economic planning in the Soviet Union. The word “Gosplan” is an abbreviation for Gosudarstvenny Planovy Komitet, which means State Planning Committee. One of its main duties was the creation of Five-Year Plans. Gosplan was headquartered at the building now occupied by the State Duma, in Moscow. 上海交通大学出版社

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Reading — Passage A

3. the City of London

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The City of London is a geographically small city within Greater London in England. It is the historic core of London around which, along with Southwark and then Westminster, the modern conurbation grew. The City’s boundaries have remained almost constant since the Middle Ages, and hence it is now only a tiny part of the much larger London metropolis. It is often referred to as the City or the Square Mile, as it is just over one square mile (1.12 mile?/ 2.90 km? ) in area. These terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom’s financial services industry, which is based here.

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Reading — Passage A

4. America’s Federal Reserve

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The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve, and informally as the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. It was created in 1913 by the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act. The Federal Reserve is regarded as a quasi-public banking system, since it has aspects of both a government-run system and private enterprise. The structure of the central banking system in the United States is unique compared to others’ in the world, in that an entity outside of the central bank creates the currency. This other entity is the United States Department of the Treasury.

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Reading — Passage A

5. hedge fund (对冲基金)

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A hedge fund is an investment fund open to a limited range of investors that is permitted by regulators to undertake a wider range of investment and trading activities than other investment funds, and that, in general, pays a performance fee to its investment manager. Every hedge fund has its own investment strategy that determines the type of investments and the methods of investment it undertakes. Hedge funds, as a class, invest in a broad range of investments including shares, debt and commodities. As the name implies, hedge funds often seek to hedge some of the risks inherent in their investments using a variety of advanced investment strategies, most notably short selling and derivatives, in both domestic and international markets with the goal of generating high returns. Nowadays, hedge funds use dozens of different strategies, so it isn’t accurate to say that hedge funds just “hedge risk”. In fact, because hedge fund managers make speculative investments, these funds can carry more risk than the overall market to maximize return on investment.

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Reading — Passage A

6. bank run (银行挤兑)

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A bank run (also known as a run on the bank) occurs when a large number of bank customers withdraw their deposits to avoid losing their money, because they believe the bank is, or might become, insolvent. As a bank run progresses, it generates its own momentum, in a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy (or positive feedback): as more people withdraw their deposits, the likelihood of default increases, and this encourages further withdrawals. This can destabilize the bank to the point where it faces bankruptcy. A banking panic or bank panic is a financial crisis that occurs when many banks suffer runs at the same time. A systemic banking crisis is one where all or almost all of the banking capital in a country is wiped out. The resulting chain of bankruptcies can cause a long economic recession. Much of the Great Depression’s economic damage was caused directly by bank runs.

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Reading — Passage A

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7. University of California at Berkeley (加州大学伯克利分校) The University of California, Berkeley (also referred to as UC Berkeley) is a public research university located in Berkeley, California, United States. The oldest of the ten major campuses affiliated with the University of California, Berkeley offers some 300 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. 8. Rutgers University (罗格斯大学) Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey (also known as Rutgers University), is the largest institution for higher education in the State of New Jersey. It the eighth oldest college in the United States.

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Reading — Passage A

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9. University of Toulouse (法国图卢兹大学) The University of Toulouse is a consortium of universities and other institutions of higher education and research, named after one of the earliest universities established in Europe in 1229, and including the successor universities to that earlier university. The present-day University of Toulouse was founded on 27 March, 2007. The University of Toulouse has more than 120,000 students, making Toulouse the second largest university city in France (after Paris).

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Reading — Passage A

10. the Nordic countries

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The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and their associated territories which include the Faroe Islands, Greenland and ?land. Scandinavia is sometimes used as a synonym for the Nordic countries, although within the Nordic countries the terms are considered distinct. The Nordic countries have a combined population of approximately 25 million spread over a land area of 3.5 million km? (Greenland accounts for 60% of the total area).

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Reading — Passage A

11. current account deficit (经常账目赤字)

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Current account deficit occurs when a country’s total import of goods, services and transfers is greater than the country’s total export of goods, services and transfers. This situation makes a country a net debtor to the rest of the world. A substantial current account deficit is not necessarily a bad thing for certain countries. Developing counties may run a current account deficit in the short term to increase local productivity and exports in the future.

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Reading — Passage A

12. Financial Times (《金融时报》)

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The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. It is a morning daily newspaper published in London and is printed at 24 sites. Its primary rival is New York City-based Wall Street Journal. The FT specialises in business and financial news while maintaining an independent editorial outlook. Printed as a broadsheet on light salmon paper, the FT is the only paper in the UK providing full daily reports on the London Stock Exchange and world markets.

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Reading — Passage A

13. collateralized debt obligation (债权抵押证券)

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A collateralised debt obligation (CDO) is a type of structured assetbacked security (ABS) whose value and payments are derived from a portfolio of underlying assets. CDOs are assigned different risk classes, or tranches, whereby “senior” tranches are considered the safest securities. Interest and principal payments are made in order of seniority, so that junior tranches offer higher coupon payments (and interest rates) or lower prices to compensate for additional default risk. A few academics, analysts and investors such as Warren Buffett and the IMF’s former chief economist Raghuram Rajan warned that CDOs, other ABSs and other derivatives spread risk and uncertainty about the value of the underlying assets more widely, rather than reduce risk through diversification. (To be continued)

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Reading — Passage A

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With the advent of the 2007-2008 credit crunch, this view has gained substantial credibility. Credit rating agencies failed to adequately account for large risks (like a nationwide collapse of housing values) when rating CDOs and other ABSs. Many CDOs are valued on a mark to market basis and thus have experienced substantial write-downs on the balance sheet as their market value has collapsed.

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Reading — Passage A

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14. University of Chicago The University of Chicago is a private, coeducational research university in Chicago, Illinois, USA. It was founded by oil magnate and benefactor John D. Rockefeller and incorporated in 1890. The University consists of the College of the University of Chicago, various graduate schools and interdisciplinary committees organized into four divisions, six professional schools, and a school of continuing education. It has a reputation of devotion to academic scholarship and intellectualism, and is affiliated with 82 Nobel Prize laureates.

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Reading — Passage A

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15. Trinity College Dublin (都柏林圣三一学院) Trinity College Dublin was founded in 1592 by letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I as the “mother of a university”, and is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, and thus the two names are interchangeable. Located in Dublin, Ireland, this is Ireland’s oldest university. Moreover, it is consistently ranked as the best university in Ireland.

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Reading — Passage A

16. the Depression

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The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s. It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century, and is used in the 21st century as an example of how far the world’s economy can decline. The Depression originated in the United States, triggered by the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 (known as Black Tuesday), but quickly spread to almost every country in the world. Countries started to recover by the mid-1930s, but in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the start of World War II.

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Reading — Passage A

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Ⅰ. Answer the following questions.

1. What is the author’s opinion on Soviet central planning economy? 2. From which point has the failure of the financial system begun? 3. By what means will many banks be able to survive the financial collapse? 4. What possible consequences will the financial collapse bring?

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Reading — Passage A

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5. To what point has trust in a modern economy evolved? 6. Which one does more harm to the trust between people, outright criminality or honest failure? 7. Why have some Asian countries been determined not to run current account deficits? 8. What are the possible causes of the financial crisis? 9. Which financial instruments have proved to be among the most destructive to the financial system? 10. Why does the author think that it might be wrong to banish finance completely?

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Reading — Passage A

Ⅱ. Guess the meanings of the italicized words in the following sentences with the help of context.

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1. The great bull market of the past quarter century is commemorated by millions of empty houses without anyone to buy them. commemorate: honor, memorialize 2. Some markets have seized up; others are being pounded by volatility. seize up: come to a halt 3. Through insurance and saving, financial services are supposed to offer shelter from life’s reverses. reverse: adversity, hardship, misfortune, setback 4. But as lending markets have retreated, borrowers have been stranded without credit and savers have seen their pensions and investments melt away. strand: desert, abandon

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Reading — Passage A

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5. Trust’s slow accumulation pushes financial markets forward; its shattering betrayal batters them back.

batter: beat, strike 6. Free markets shun seemingly worthy causes, whereas the frivolous or apparently undeserving are rewarded.

frivolous: trivial, silly, unimportant, superficial 7. In America middle-class pay has stalled in recent years but financiers have figured prominently among the tiny number of people who have captured much of the extra income. For as long as the world economy was growing fast, financial markets commanded grudging allegiance. stall: stand still allegiance: loyalty, commitment, devotion, adherence

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27 8. And yet financial services were not so much a victim of the inflows of foreign capital as an eager accomplice. accomplice: assistant, partner, helper 9. It takes a big upheaval to open the way for radical reform. upheaval: major change, revolution 10. Reform is certainly needed, yet, for all the excesses and instability of finance, a complete clampdown would be a mistake. clampdown: restriction, suppression

Reading — Passage A

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Speaking

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Work in groups. Think out as many words and expressions as possible about the following topics. Job Hunting preparation opportunity arrangement interview performance___________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

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Speaking

Favorable Qualities in Job Application

resilient intuitive likability commitment

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________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

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Speaking

Banking & Financial Services

savings insurance loans mortgage hedge fund foreign exchange collateralized-debt obligation

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________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

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Speaking

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Macroeconomy

centralplanning

free market

GDP

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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Speaking

Stocks and securities

bull market private equity firm share

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_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Speaking

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I. What type of job do you want to have in the future? Do you have any plans for your career? What preparation do you think you should make? II. What do you think are the reasons for the fact that graduates are finding it more and more difficult to find jobs? Try to analyze the reasons from different angles. III. What particular banking services are most important to you in your current situation? Look around and see if there are banks in your area that might meet your needs, including online banking options. Then, share your ideas with a partner about the future of traditional branch banking and that of online banking respectively. Ⅳ. With the advancements of computer and Internet technology, online shopping has become more and more prevalent especially among younger generations. Have you ever purchased anything on the Internet? What did you buy and how did you feel about the experience? Compare online shopping with the traditional way of shopping in retail stores or shops, and discuss whether it is possible that someday the traditional way of shopping will be completely replaced by online shopping.

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Speaking

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I. Have you ever thought about the situation of quitting a job or being fired? Actually you can turn career change into gold. Read the following passage and discuss the questions with your partners.

1. What are the things you could do during the career transition period? 2. Apart from a job loss or career change, what might be the other stressful life events? 3. How do you understand the first sentence in the passage? 4. What do people who quit their work or get sacked usually feel? And how should they move through those negative emotions? 5. Do you love to have the same job for the whole life? Or do you prefer to change jobs several times during your careers? Why or why not?

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Speaking

II. Due to the global financial crisis, job opportunities on Wall Street have dramatically shrunk. Therefore, more and more business graduates, even MBAs from top business schools, have to hunt jobs elsewhere which may hardly be related to business or trade. Read the following passage and discuss the questions with your partners.

1. What were the main factors that channeled students to Wall Street?

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2. Why do many students at Wharton feel relieved when facing the financial crisis?

3. What kind of options will some financial majors accept if they are shut out of Wall Street jobs?

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Speaking

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4. Why do so many students want to get into top investment banks such as Goldman Sachs? 5. Who will be affected by the sweeping changes on Wall Street? 6. How could the Wall Street crisis be a blessing in disguise? Cite an example from the passage. 7. How did many undergraduates who coveted for Wall Street jobs feel about the financial crisis?

8. How much is the percentage of drop in the number of second-year MBA students at Harvard who had job offers from the years of 2008 to 2009?

9. Why did Patricia Rose send out a message to the students at the University of Pennsylvania? 10. Between the two options of Rabbinical school and a real estate investment firm, which one does Daniel Miller prefer?

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Speaking

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Match the formal verbs to their less formal equivalents. employ reduce witness commence deteriorate implement retain remunerate modify begin / start pay see put into action keep change get worse use cut down

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Translation

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I. Translate the following sentences into Chinese. 1. Congress has made laws requiring most pressure groups to give information about how much they spend and how they spend it, the amount and sources of funds, membership, and names and salaries of their representatives.

国会已制定法律,要求大部分压力集团呈报他们花费了多少钱、怎 样花的,以及该款项的总额和来源、成员人数、代表的姓名和薪金 等情况。

2. In August 1974, the Institute was instructed to carry on its research on condition that the result of which did have a usefulness for market forecasts.

1974年8月,该研究所接到命令:如果其研究成果确实可用于市场 预测,则研究可继续进行下去。

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39 3. With a view to successfully maintaining a balanced system implemented by a basically even distribution of Federal resources, Federal financial aid is given only if a state has acceptable standards of administration.

各州先要有符合标准的管理制度,联邦政府才会拨给财政援助, 这是为了使联邦政府的财源基本上得到平均分配,确保实行一 种平衡财政制度。

Translation

4. So it was that the farm poor were caught in their own past, the double victims of technology exile from their home by advances in agricultural machinery; unfitted for life in the city because of the consequences of industrial mechanization.

最终结果就是这些种地的贫苦农民无法摆脱过去,成为技术的双重 牺牲者:由于农业机械应用日益扩大而被赶出自己的家园,而工业 机械化又使他们在城市里无以为生。

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5. A great number of graduate students were driven into the intellectual slum when in the United States the intellectual poor became the classic poor, the poor under the rather romantic guise of the Beat Generation, a real phenomenon in the late fifties.

Translation

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上世纪50年代后期,美国出现了一个任何人都无法忽视的现象, 穷知识分子以“垮掉的一代”这种颇为浪漫的姿态出现而成为美 国的“经典”穷人,而大批毕业生正被迫加入他们的行列。

6. We have already seen the effect of this in Congress, where party plays a relatively minor role in the majority of issues and where, almost without exception, a large percent of each party is found on each side of issues on which there are differences in opinion. 每个政党在大多数问题上产生分歧的时候,党内几乎无一例外都有 大批人士分属于争论各方,因此政党所起的只是次要作用。

我们已 在国会中见到这种情形。

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Translation

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7. Such is human nature in the West that a great many people are often willing to sacrifice higher pay for the privilege of becoming white collar workers.

许多人常常宁愿牺牲比较高的工资以换取白领工人享有的社会地

位,这在西方是人之常情。

8. Now there is in America a curious combination of pride in having risen to a position where it is no longer necessary to depend on manual labor for a living and genuine delight in what one is able to accomplish with one’s own hands.

现在美国有一种奇怪的现象:一方面,人们为上升到不再依靠体力劳动 来谋生的地位而感到骄傲,另一方面却又对能用自己的双手做成一件事

情而感到由衷的高兴。

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42 9. Better roads and better vehicles induced the wealthier classes to live in the suburbs of the cities. This tendency is now spreading rapidly downwards, concentrating manufacturing activity, business, government, and pleasure in the centers of the cities, but pushing the homes outward even at the cost of the discomfort of commuting. 道路更加平坦畅通,交通工具更加高速舒适,使得富裕阶层开 始到市郊居住。

这一趋势目前正迅速向中下层阶级发展,使得

Translation

生产活动、商业贸易、政府机关和娱乐设施都集中在市中心, 而许多家庭不惜忍受上下班的车旅劳顿之苦,搬到郊外。

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Translation

43

10. I suppose that if a man has a confused mind he will write in a confused way, if his temper is capricious his prose will be fantastical, and if he has a quick, darting intelligence that is reminded by the matter in hand of a hundred things, he will unless he has great self-control, load his pages with metaphor and simile. 我认为,如果一个人思路不清,他写文章也不可能写得清楚; 如果他喜怒无常,他的文章就会荒诞不经;如果他思路敏捷,

能由眼前的事情联想到一百件事情,又不能尽力克制自己,就 会在文章里写满各种各样的明喻暗喻。

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Translation

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11. A downside of the market slump is that getting your hands on an affordable property is becoming increasingly difficult as builders are laid off and supply shrinks. 市场萧条的负面影响之一就是由于建筑工人被辞退,住房供

应缩减,想买到可以负担得起的房子更加困难了。

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Translation

45

12. The automobile has brought many changes in American life — for example, the remarkable growth of the suburbs in the past 25 years as many people who work in the cities now enjoy country living because of good roads and the ease of commuting by automobile. Heavy use of the nation’s highways has created a demand for roadside businesses of various kinds, including outdoor movie theaters, where audiences watch films from their automobiles and convenient roadside hotels known as “motels”.

汽车给美国人的生活带来了许多变化,例如过去25年中郊区有了显

著的发展。

许多在城里工作的人,由于道路畅通,开车上下班方便,

现在反而喜欢住在乡下。

公路交通繁忙,对各种路边商业的需求应

运而生,包括免下车的露天电影院,还有很方便的称为汽车旅馆的 路边旅馆。

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Translation

46

13. The man in the street scarcely realizes that many forms of business, some major industries, and one or two minor professions could be completely abolished without gravely injuring American society; whereas the disappearance or even what we see in some quarters, the continuous neglect and degradation of the teaching profession must mean a disaster to the entire nation.

在美国,许多商业可以完全停业,某些主要工业可以完全废除,一

两个次要职业也可以完全取消,这些都不至于严重影响社会;但如 果没有教师这一职业,或者像在某些地区那样,教育事业长期未受 重视,每况愈下,那么对整个国家而言,这必将是一场灾难。

这一 点,一般人是很少意识到的。

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Translation

47

14. The president said at a press conference dominated by questions on yesterday’s election results that he could not explain why the Republicans had suffered such a widespread defeat, which in the end would deprive the Republican Party of long-held superiority in the House.

在记者招待会上,问题主要集中于昨天的选举结果。

总统称他无

法解释为什么共和党会遭受如此惨重的失败,而这种结果最终会 使共和党失去其在众议院长期享有的优势地位。

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Translation

48

15. Only rarely does a coherent picture emerge; in a sense coherence must be imposed on events by the decision maker, who seizes the challenge and turns it into opportunity by assessing correctly both the circumstances and his margin for creative action. 决策人要能对当前形势和可回旋余地做出正确的估量,这样才 能抓住时机,独辟蹊径将危机转化为良机。

这时才有可能出现 事态的顺利发展;有条不紊的现象自行出现则是十分罕见的。

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Translation

II. Translate the following paragraphs into Chinese.

49

1. For reasons that range from simply making ends meet to putting money away for luxuries or for retirement, millions are taking on second or even third jobs for added cash. Employment agencies in nearly every city report heavy demand for part-time jobs. In most cases, the avalanche of requests far exceeds available jobs. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that about one third of those who take more than one job need the additional income to cover basic living expenses. That is the case with Sgt. Lupe de la Garza, a 14-year veteran of the Los Angeles Police Department. The extra income — $500 a month — has enabled the de la Garza family to put money away for the children’s college education and take vacations. Says de la Garza, “I get a little tired sometimes, but making the effort has been well worth it for my family.”

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50

数以百万计的人正在从事第二甚至第三职业以增加收入,有 的仅仅是为了维持收支平衡,有的则是为了攒钱进行高档消费或 退休养老。

几乎每个城市的职业介绍所都反映有大量兼职需求。

在大多数情况下,兼职申请像雪片一样多,远远超过了能够提供 的岗位。

据美国劳动统计局估计,大约有三分之一的兼职者需要 额外收入来支付基本生活开销。

在洛杉矶警署工作了十四年的老 警官鲁普?德拉加扎就属于这种情况。

每个月500美元的额外收入 可以使德拉加扎家存钱供孩子们上大学用,还可以让全家人外出 度假。

德拉加扎说:“有时候我感觉有点累,但是为了家人,我 辛苦一点也是值得的。

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51

2. The fact that private cars are competing with commodity houses to be the first consideration in people’s consumption itself shows that the traditional idea of sticking to a certain place is challenged. The purchase of commodity houses is a kind of inflation-proof investment. By limiting people in an isolated space, houses provide a type of conservative lifestyle. The purchase of private cars, however, is greatly different in that the private cars can easily take people to remoter places and into larger societies to have a wider communication in the city, no matter socially or spiritually, although cars begin to devalue the very moment people buy them.

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52

私家车与商品房在争夺人们心中第一消费支出的位置,这本 身就是对传统安居乐业观念的颠覆。

买商品房是一种保值型投资 ,这种不动产提供的单独空间,客观上将人的生活固定在一种保 守模式上;而买车与买商品房的最大不同就是虽然汽车本身会越 来越贬值,但在社交意义和精神需要上,它能自由地将人带往很 远的地方和更大的圈子,使城市居民有更广阔的交流。

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Translation

53

III. Translate the underlined parts of the passages in the READING section into Chinese.

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Translation

Passage A

54

当有人问你为什么应该雇用你或者为什么不应该解雇你时,要用事实数字来支持 你的回答。

当杰西和她的团队被问到为什么应该留下他们时,他们对自己的领导技能和 领导素质泛泛而谈,但是没有一个人用具体成就作为例子来支持自己的回答。

在第六周,特洛伊和克瓦米一直对项目经理 ——即将被解雇的杰西 ——给予积极 的评价。

但是,其他组员海蒂、杰西和奥玛罗莎不仅相互之间给予了非常负面的评价, 而且争相推托自己的过错。

虽然只有杰西被解雇了,但是在现实世界里,用杜林普的话

说就是,所有的这三名女组员可能都会发现自己“和团队格格不入”。

当然,谭米· 李

既说他人坏话,又在言谈之间表现出好像不够忠诚,最终加速导致其在第七周的公寓装 修一集中被淘汰出局。

在现实世界里的面试/绩效评估中,给面试官/主管留下的个人印象可能是决定你就 业前景的最重要因素。

在面试时,这种个人印象常常在最初 5分钟之内就建立起来了。

虽然给面试官留下一个好的个人印象并不意味着必然得到工作,但是不好的个人印象几 乎总是导致被拒。

不讨人喜欢是谭米· 李被解雇的主要原因之一,她没能给其他组员、

当奴· 杜林普及其顾问留下好的印象。

而与此形成鲜明对比的是艾米· 亨利,她给别人留

下了好印象,从而把其他竞争对手远远甩在身后。

看上去好像人人都非常喜欢她。

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Translation

55

Passage B

过去的25年是金融业发展的黄金时代。

金融全球化使资本流通更为广泛,市场更 为繁荣,企业有能力进行新的风险投资,老百姓进行借贷以及外币兑换的机会也是前 所未有的。

现代金融的发展改善了无数人的生活。

然而最近似乎有点不对劲了。

通过保险和储蓄,金融服务应该可以为人们遮风挡 雨,提供不时之需。

但恰恰相反,金融业使人们的财富变得岌岌可危,金融家却腰缠 万贯。

金融服务应该是双向的:既有人借款也有人存钱。

可由于信贷市场的萎缩,借

款人由于缺乏信用而无法借到钱,与此同时,储蓄者也只能眼睁睁地看着他们的养老

金和投资付诸东流,化为乌有。

金融市场应该是这样一台机器:它首先能够积累资金 ,然后决定谁可以使用及如何使用这些资金。

而现在怎么错得如此离谱呢?

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Translation

Passage B

56

改革势在必行,但是,尽管金融业存在诸多过分行为及不稳定性,明令禁止、严 厉打击也是不明智的。

一方面,我们无法忘记过去二十五年经济的辉煌繁荣,其中金 融业的功绩可圈可点,值得赞颂。

同时,也请注意,不管体制是开放的还是封闭的, 简单的还是复杂的,金融业发生危机总是不可避免。

试图通过制订法规来规范金融行 业的行为,以确保其更加稳定,也于事无补,因为精明的金融家总会利用规则大打擦 边球,最终使法律规范形同虚设。

如果真有一个简便易行的方法来阻止各种危机,那 它一开始就已经是金融规范的基础了。

实际上,我们的目的既不是将金融“扫地出门”,也不是使其受到打击惩治,而 是要创建一个新体制,使其既能通过国家调控保持稳定性,又能激发私有化企业的主

观能动性,从而保持经济的持续增长。

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57

Ⅰ. Read the above description of the three pie charts and finish the following sub-tasks. 1) All the figures in the article are almost a copy from the original graphs. Can you try to interpret them in your own way? 24%: nearly a quarter; 6%: a relatively small percentage; (12%+18%) 30%: nearly one third; 57%: over a half; 10%: one tenth; 60%: six in ten; 40%: two thirds of the former percentage (60%)

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58

2) In this description, two statements seem irrelevant, can you identify them?

a. In some countries this percentage would obviously be much higher. b. In fact China and India are two of the most populated countries in the world and they are both situated on this continent. 3) As a conclusion, the last sentence can hardly be qualified. Draw your own conclusion. To sum up, the major expenditure goes to basic needs of life; people in Asia consume fewer resources than those in the USA and Europe even though the population figures are the highest for Asia.

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59

Ⅱ. The line graph below shows the rates of smoking in Someland among men and women. Describe the trends you can identify, using the words rate, decrease, increase, peak, smoker, stable, high. Check how many sentence patterns you can employ.

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60

The graph compares the rate of smoking among men and women in Someland between the years 1960 and 2000. In 1960, 600 in every 1,000 men were smoking. This number decreased gradually to 500 by 1975 and continued to decrease but more steeply to 250 in 2000. In contrast, the rate of smoking in women in 1960 was very low at only 80 in every 1,000. However, by 1970 this number increased to 170, and increased again but more steeply until peaking at 320 in 1975. The rate of female smokers then remained stable at 320 until 1980, from which point the figures began to decline and had dropped to 200 by 2000. In conclusion, it can be clearly seen that the rate of smoking for both men and women is currently declining and that the rates of smoking in men were always at a higher level than the female figures.

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61

Ⅲ. The following pie charts show the differences in people’s diet habit. Interpret the data and write a structured description to indicate the relationship.

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62

The two pie charts compare the percentages of different substances in food in the years of 1990 and 2005. For sugar, in 1990, almost a quarter of the whole consumption was sugar, while in 2005 the figure decreased to only 15%. In terms of starch, the percentage was 22% in 1990, but in 2005, it took a lion share of 43%, nearly half of the food. As for fat, the percentage jumped greatly from almost a half to only one third. Last comes protein. It is the only substance that remained constant after 15 years. From the above description, we can safely draw the conclusion that people’s diet habit gets healthier.

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应用型研究生英语系列教材

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